“Active Metal and Industrial Mineral Underground Mines in the United States in 2002,” United States Geological Survey Mineral Industry Survey. [PDF]
“Active Metal and Industrial Mineral Underground Mines in the United States in 2003,” United States Geological Survey Mineral Industry Survey. [PDF]
“Active Metal and Industrial Mineral Underground Mines in the United States in 2004,” United States Geological Survey Mineral Industry Survey. [PDF]
“Active Metal and Industrial Mineral Underground Mines in the United States in 2005,” United States Geological Survey Mineral Industry Survey. [PDF]
“Active Metal and Industrial Mineral Underground Mines in the United States in 2006,” United States Geological Survey Mineral Industry Survey. [PDF]
“Active Metal and Industrial Mineral Underground Mines in the United States in 2007,” United States Geological Survey Mineral Industry Survey. [PDF]
“Active Metal and Industrial Mineral Underground Mines in the United States in 2008,” United States Geological Survey Mineral Industry Survey. [PDF]
“Active Metal and Industrial Mineral Underground Mines in the United States in 2009,” United States Geological Survey Mineral Industry Survey. [PDF]
"Dimension stone can be defined as natural rock material quarried for the purpose of obtaining blocks or slabs that meet specifications as to size (width, length, and thickness) and shape. Color, grain texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are normal requirements. Durability (essentially based on mineral composition and hardness and past performance), strength, and the ability of the stone to take a polish are other important selection criteria.
"Although a variety of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks are used as dimension stone, the principal rock types are granite, limestone, marble, sandstone, and slate. Other varieties of dimension stone that are normally considered to be special minor types include alabaster (massive gypsum), soapstone (massive talc), and various products fashioned from natural stone."
(Please Note: There are many stone portals on the Internet, and below are a few. If you are aware of other similar web sites, feel free to send them to me to be included in the list below.)
This book fully covers the United States stone quarry industry up through 1939. There is also a chapter on “Foreign Building and Ornamental Stones.” Below is a listing of the information covered in the chapters. (Many photographs of quarries, etc., are included in this book.)
Part I. General Features of the Stone Industries
Chapter I. Extent and Subdivision. Extent of the Industry – Major Divisions of the Industry – Varieties of Stone Used
Chapter II. Minerals and Rocks. Distinction between Rock and Stone – Relationship of Rocks to Minerals – Rock-forming Minerals – Classification of Rocks – General Distribution of Rocks in the United States.
Chapter III. Factors Governing Rock Utilization. Rock Qualities on Which Use Depends – Importance of Other factors than Quality – Available Markets; Diversification of Products Transportation Facilities – Production Code
Chapter IV. Prospecting and Developing. Prospecting – Stripping – General Methods of Operation – Bibliography
Part II. Dimension Stone
Chapter V. General Features of Dimension-Stone Industries. Definition of Dimension Stone – Principal Uses Requisite Qualities of Dimension Stone – Adaptations of Raw Materials to Use – Complexities in Marketing – Royalties
Chapter VI. Limestone. Definition – Origin – Physical Properties – Varieties – Qualities on Which Use Depends – Uses – Industry by States – Occurrences of Travertine – Quarry Methods – Milling Methods – Limestone Products – Cost of Quarrying and Manufacture – Waste in Quarrying and Manufacture – Utilization of Waste – Limestone Marketing – Bibliography
Chapter VII. Sandstone. Varieties – Composition – Size and Shape of Grains – Cementation – Color – Porosity – Uses – Production – Industry by States – Quarry Methods – Quarry Processes – Yard Service – Sandstone Sawmills and Finishing Plants – The Bluestone Industry – Waste in Sandstone Quarrying and Manufacture – Bibliography
Chapter VIII. Granite. General Character – Mineral Composition – Chemical Composition – Physical Properties Varieties – Related Rocks – Structural Features – Uses – Distribution of deposits – Industry by States – Quarry Methods and Equipment – Milling Methods and Equipment – Market Range – Imports, Exports, and Tariffs – Prices – Bibliography
Chapter IX. Marble. History – Definition – Composition – Origin and Varieties – Physical Properties – Jointing or Unsoundness – Chief Impurities of Marble – Uses – Distribution of Deposits – Production – Industry by States – Quarry Methods and Equipment – Transportation; Equipment and Operation in Mills and Shops – Waste in Quarrying and Manufacture – Marketing Marble – Imports and Exports – Tariff – Prices – Bibliography
Chapter X. Slate. Definition – Origin – Mineralogical Composition – Chemical Composition – Physical Properties – Structural Features – Imperfections – Uses – History of Industry – General Distribution – Production – Industry by States – General Plan of Quarrying – Quarry Operations – Quarry Methods – Yard Transportation – Manufacture of Roofing Slate – Storage of Roofing Slate – The Art of Roofing with Slate – Manufacture of School slates – Manufacture of Mill Stock – Slate Floors – Walks, and Walls – Crushed and Pulverized Slate Products – Waste in Quarrying and Manufacturing – Tests and Specifications – Marketing – Imports and Exports – Tariff – Prices – Bibliography
Chapter XI. Soapstone. Composition and Properties – History – Uses – Origin and Occurrence – Quarry Methods – Milling Processes – Marketing – Rocks Related to Soapstone – Bibliography
Chapter XII. Boulders as Building Materials. Origin and Nature of Boulders – Stone Fences – The Use of Boulders in Buildings
Chapter XIII. Foreign Building and Ornamental Stones. Scope of Discussion – Imports of Stone – Foreign Limestones – Foreign Sandstones – Foreign Granites – Foreign Marbles – Foreign Slates – Bibliography
Chapter XIV. Miscellaneous Rocks and Minerals Used for Building and Ornamental Purposes. Agalmatolite – Alabaster – Amazonite – Catlinite – Clay – Diatomite – Tripoli and Pumice – Fluorite – Jade – Labradorite – Lapis-lazuli – Malachite and Azurite – Meerschaum – Mica Schist – Porphyry – Quartz; Snow and Ice – Sodalite – Bibliography
Chapter XV. Deterioration, Preservation, and Cleaning of Stonework. Deterioration of Stone – Preservation of Stone – Cleaning Stone – Bibliography
Part III. Crushed and Broken Stone
Chapter XVI. General Features of the Crushed-Stone Industries. History – Types and Values of Stone Used – Crushed Stone and Dimension Stone Contrasted – Uses of Crushed Stone – Competition – Markets – Transportation – Prices – Royalties – Capital Required
Chapter XVII. Crushed and Broken Limestone. Types of Stone Included – Extent of Industry – Uses of Crushed and Broken Limestone – Uses for Which Physical Properties are Most Important – Uses for Which Chemical Properties are Most Important – Uses of Dolomite and High-magnesian Limestone – Industry by States – Quarry Methods and Equipment; Bibliography
Chapter XVIII. Crushed and Broken Stone Other Than Limestone. General Features – Uses – General Distribution and Value – Industries by States – Quarry Method and Equipment – Marketing – Bibliography
The time period covered in this article is during the early 1800s.
Key words in article: Adamant Quarries, Montpelier, Vermont; block and tackle; boom derrick; clog chains; John Crouse of Syracuse, New York; Fayette Cutler, Barre, Vermont; double runner sleds; freight Tariffs; Joseph Glidden, Mark Glidden;granite quarries; granite sheds; horse sweep; Jones Brothers, Vermont; “New Hampshire Horses,” railroads; ramp, rollers; single-drum winch; skids; spur track; St. John the Devine Cathedral, New York City; Stanford Mausoleum; wagon pulled by horses and oxen teams, wagons.
Prospecting (for Marble).
“Important technical details of modern prospecting of marble deposits have been recently published in a paper by Bowles,* in which the following suggestions are given in much greater detail.
(* Footnote 1, page 98: Bowles, Oliver, The technology of marble quarrying: Bur. Mines Bull. 106, pp. 39-46, 1916.)
“Value of geologic maps. – Some marble beds crop out in long-narrow bands, which may extend for many miles These bands represent truncated edges of folded strata and they may be curved or straight, their form depending on the topography and on the nature of the folds. Other marble beds have irregular outlines owing to faulting or to incomplete metamorphism of the original limestone mass. Much of the rock surface may be covered with gravel, sand, or clay to a considerable depth. The geologist may, by a careful study of outcrops exposed here and there, obtain a knowledge of the chief structural features and may thus determine the position, attitude, and thickness of the marble beds with a fair degree of accuracy, even if they are almost entirely hidden by surface debris. If geologic maps of marble areas are carefully made they are of inestimable value to the marble prospector. By accurately locating himself in the field and carefully studying a geologic map the prospector may determine the position of the marble beds beneath the surface and know something of their extent and attitude, although the beds are unseen. It is important, therefore, that all available geologic maps of the region be consulted freely.
“Detailed prospecting. – Knowledge of the suitability of any particular site can be gained only by detailed prospecting, including determinations of the depth of overburden and of surface decay of the rock and of the extent, quality, impurities, and soundness of the deposit. It is unwise to proceed with development work without reasonable assurance that an available mass of sound and attractive marble is sufficiently uniform in quality and abundant in quantity for profitable exploitation.
“Determination of overburden. – The depth of stripping necessary may be determined at small cost by putting down drill holes. Such preliminary tests may save much wasteful expenditure, for in places stripping has been attempted without any previous investigation of the depth of soil to be removed, and great loss has resulted from thus working blindly.
“In estimating the necessary cost of stripping for a new quarry, the attitude of the marble beds must be taken into account. If the beds are flat a greater area of rock must be uncovered than if they are steeply inclined or vertical.
“Conditions relating to disposal of strippings are of great importance. In certain places it is a matter of some difficulty to find a suitable place in which to deposit the soil that must be removed; in other places the soil may be carried to neighboring valleys or low-lying areas and usefully employed.
“Surface study. – Surface observations of the marble beds are of great value, especially as regards jointing. The process of weathering tends to emphasize all unsoundness and thus facilitates the study of joint systems. Exposed surfaces may also permit a determination of dip and strike and the thickness of the beds. In determining the quality of a marble deposit a study of uncovered knobs or ledges should not, however, be deemed sufficient. On account of surface weathering the top rock may differ materially from the deeper parts of the deposit. Moreover, the number and spacing of joints at the surface may be no indication of the prevailing conditions at depth. In order to obtain a fair idea of the quality and soundness of the marble and the supply available, drill cores should be taken at several points.”
Diamond-drill prospecting. – The ordinary diamond drill will give the necessary information regarding color, uniformity, and general appearance of the stone, and also the extent of the formation. It will not, however, give definite information concerning the dip and the strike or the unsoundness of the marble. If drill cores come out in long, unbroken sections that show no indication of cracks, it may be assumed that the rock is fairly sound. If, on the other hand, the core is in short sections, the rotation of the drill will as a rule have so worn and rounded the broken ends that it will be impossible to determine whether the breaks are due to natural planes of weakness in the rocks or to the process of drilling itself.
“A method of prospect drilling that has been employed involves the use of the double-core barrel drill, consisting of an outer and an inner tube, which was designed primarily for drilling bituminous coal and operates in such a manner as to bring out a core from delicate material with a minimum of breaking or other damage.
“The use of such a drill enables the prospector to judge the unsoundness of the marble at points beneath the surface, for by examination of the ends of the sections of drill core he can generally interpret the breaks and state whether they are due to natural joint planes in the rock or to the process of drilling. If the cores are properly oriented, the proximity and direction of all natural cracks in the rock and in the immediate vicinity of the drill holes may thus be ascertained. If the marble deposit is well exposed, the dip and the strike may be determined from examination of the ends of the sections of drill core he can generally interpret the breaks and state whether they are due to natural joint planes in the rock or to the process of drilling. If the cores are properly oriented, the proximity and direction of all natural cracks in the rock and in the immediate vicinity of the drill holes may thus be ascertained. If the marble deposit is well exposed, the dip and the strike may be determined from examination of the outcrops. If, however, it is completely buried, these features may be determined from the drill cores if they are carefully oriented.
“Information should be obtained with a minimum number of drill holes. In this respect prospecting for marble differs materially from prospecting for metalliferous ores, as the soundness of the ore is not important, whereas with the marble every crack or cavity increases the proportion of waste in the quarried product. A drill hole in a quarry may be nearly as objectionable as a crack. If the deposit lies flat or nearly so, a single well-placed core driven entirely through the deposit will give the information as to the character of the marble and show ether it is one homogeneous mass or is divided by streaks of color or open beds into different layers and whether the layers differ in character. If, however, the deposit dips at a moderate angle and is comparatively thick, the best way to determine its thickness and the character of its beds is to lay out a line of drill holes at right angles to the strike. The first drill hole that penetrates the upper beds should begin in the hanging wall, the bed immediately overlying the marble bed. The holes should be of such depth and spacing that the bottom of a hole in the upper beds will penetrate the same layer as the top of the neighboring hole on the side toward the footwall. The core nearest the footwall should reach and penetrate this wall. By this method a series of core holes of moderate depth will supply samples from all the beds, and the relatively high cost of drilling deep holes penetrating the entire deposit will be avoided.
“A marble deposit in which the color, texture, or other qualities are highly satisfactory may nevertheless not warrant commercial development because of joints and cracks. Most joints occur in two systems, the openings in each system being approximately parallel with one another and the two systems being more or less nearly at right angles. In Alaskan deposits generally more than two systems are present. The spacing of the cracks varies widely in different deposits and even in different parts of the same deposit. In many places cracks persist to almost any depth to which quarrying operations have been carried. It is important to determine, if possible, which of the cracks that appear at the surface are likely to persist, and also their nature and spacing in the deeper parts of the deposit. Where the cracks are nearly vertical a vertical core taken out of marble that is unsound may reveal the presence of only a few of the cracks. There, under such conditions, a veridical hole is not reliable as a means of estimating the unsoundness to be encountered.
“It is practically impossible to take out good cores that are representative of the deposit from horizontal drill holes. The cores from a horizontal hole invariable breaks into short pieces, which grind on each other, in spite of the use of the double-core barrel. Therefore, if the marble beds lie flat, or nearly so, unsoundness must be prospected for by inclined core holes; otherwise the cores will not yield the information desired. If the marble deposit stands at a high angle, one set of core holes driven in an inclined direction and penetrating from he hanging wall to the footwall, or the reverse, can be laid out so as to give the information required as to the quality of the stone and also the unsoundness. It is important to take cores near the top, near the middle, and near the bottom of the deposit, because the unsoundness may vary in different beds, as well as in different parts of the same bed.
“In order to get the fullest information from an inclined core hole the core parts should be matched up from one end to the other and placed as fast as obtained on an inclined rack that will hold the core in a position parallel with the hole from which it was taken. While the core is in this position the compass bearing of the cracks and also the angle that they make with the core can easily be determined. From this information a plan may be made from which the probable percentage of marble unaffected by unsoundness may be computed with reasonable accuracy.
“As a rule, drill cores are not preserved with sufficient care by quarrymen. They are often carelessly stored, lost, or given away as samples. It is important that every part of every drill core be carefully marked and stored for future reference. It must not be assumed that the value of drill cores disappears after their first investigation. They are invaluable records, which should be available at all times.
“All drill cores should be polished on one side, in order to facilitate determination of color, uniformity, and degree of polish that may be obtained. It is well to supplement the evidence of the cores by stripping the marble along each line of holes, and also to dig a trench or two at right angles to each line of core holes, so as to expose the marble to some extent along the strike.”
“Fifty-Ton Electric Crane Used for Loading Cars.”
“Channeling Machine at Work, Showing Vertical and Horizonal Cuts.”
“One of the Locomotive Cranes in Use at the American Carrara.”
“View of Quarry, Showing the Method of Supporting the Sides by Leaving Buttresses of Marble in the Cut.”
“Quarry at Proctor with Gang of Electric Channeling Machines.”
“Type of Steam Drill Used in Quarrying.”
|Included for these years are the sections on the “Stone” (including granite, marble, limestone, and slate), “Cement,” and portions of the “Abrasive Materials” of the Mineral Resources sections of the U. S. Geological Survey books from 1883 through 1931. (For 1932 and later years, see “Mineral Yearbooks of the U. S. Bureau of Mines (1932 through 1993) - Metals, Nonmetals, and Fuels - Domestic & International.”)|
Introduction and summary: Pulmonary tuberculosis, silicosis, granite; Previous investigations in the stone industry: Phthisis, tuberculosis, Aberdeen; Mortality among granite stone workers: Pulmonary tuberculosis, granite cutters, schist; Mortality among families of granite cutters: Caledonia Counties, granite, female genital organs; Trade life and occupational changes: Transvaal, living granite, granite cutters; Supplementary considerations: Limestone, influenza, Calcium carbonate; Comparative occupational mortality data: Pulmonary Tuberculosis, limestone, Netherlands; Stonedust correlation data: Calcium carbonate, silica, among granite cutters; Other investigations: Bendigo, silicosis, fibroid; General conclusions: Silica, sputum, Dyspnea; Appendix A Inquiry blank used in this investigation: Grinshill, quartz, Pulmonary Tuberculosis; Mineralogy of the dust problem: Biotite, feldspar, orthoclase; Appendix G Report of medical investigation of granite cutters of Barre Vermont: X-ray, Granite, radiograms; Appendix H German sickfund experience: Cape Town, Silicosis, stonecutters; Charts: Lead poisoning, Anthrax, occupational disease.
Deadly Dust: Silicosis and the Politics of Occupational Disease in Twentieth-Century America, by David Rosner, Gerald Markowitz, contributor Gerald Markowitz, published by Princeton University Press, 1994, 248 pp., ISBN 069103771X, 9780691037714. (Further information is available on this book on Google Book Search.)
“During the Depression, silicosis, an industrial lung disease, emerged as a national social crisis. Experts estimated that hundreds of thousands of workers were at risk of disease, disability, and death by inhaling silica in mines, foundries, and quarries. By the 1950s, however, silicosis was nearly forgotten by the media and health professionals. Asking what makes a health threat a public issue, David Rosner and Gerald Markowitz examine how a culture defines disease and how disease itself is understood at different moments in history. They also consider who should assume responsibility for occupational disease.”
From the web site: “This web site was developed to help preserve the memories, contributions and hard work of the granite, limestone, slate and marble quarry workers of the United States and Canada. The site is also a virtual resource of collecting names of ancestors and their contributions to the industry and their labor unions.”
In quarries discoveries, as shown by our illustration, it performs the cutting of monolithic blocks by means of the helical wire, consisting of three steel wires wrapped helically on the other one, with a diameter of about 6 mm and length up to 1000 meters. This wire rope, mounted in a closed circuit on pulleys, comes made to slide at a speed of 5 or 6 meters per second, passing in a position of rubbing along the rock to be separated; the line of friction is continuously sprayed from a mixture of water and silica sand which serves as the abrasive. The groove-crack so you ridden it may also deepen gradually over tens of meters, as long as it would lower per square on the first place, in marketable size.
The illustration shows three modern systems used.
The first is by hand, the cheapest and oldest. The blocks from one or two hundred tons are placed on the contention that it is formed by two strong beams of oak or beech, roughly square, with the ends somewhat pointed and curved upwards. The load is restrained with thick ropes of hemp or steel wire, which are the piri stakes driven into the mountain, and slid slowly over wallpaper (?) or hardwood joists, lubricated with soap or tallow to prevent excessive friction and to slide smoothly along the upstream load.
The second system illustrated is the inclined plane that is carried out on a normal railway track, by means of special trucks, on which are loaded blocks, retained with steel cables.
A third transport system, the cable car, with which you can pull down from the mountain blocks up to 20 tons, is usually very expensive for marble.
Inset: an example of – Red Verona
The numerous types of marbles are named according to their physical properties and color, as well as in connection with, often, the places from which they are extracted.
One of the most marbles I have known are White Carrara, Tuscany and the Roman Travertine, Rosso di Verona, the Baveno pink granite, the red Solberga (Swedish), Brazil’s Black, Black Belgian, etc.
The operation of moving blocks of marble out by a crane trestle with fly outside that allow them to withdraw or deposit the same on the carts, trucks or railcars that transport them to the sawmills.
In the box: a copy of – Green Apli.
“In 1914 a co-operative agreement was entered into between the United States Geological Survey, the Bureau of Standards, and the Bureau of Mines for a study of the stone-quarrying industry of the country. The work undertaken by the Bureau of Mines had for its chief objects the promotion of safety and efficiency, and the elimination of waste in the industry, as well as a study of the technological methods used, and of the problems involved.“There are approximately 3,000 quarries in active operation in the United States, employing in all about 100,000 men….”