Geological Map of Alabama is available on this web site.
Mineral Resources Program at the Geological Survey of Alabama (The following quotation is used with permission.)
"Crushed stone, including limestone, dolomite, marble, granite, sandstone, and quartzite, contributes to a thriving mineral industry in the state. Stone, along with sand, gravel, and clay, makes up a multi-million dollar nonfuel minerals industry in Alabama. In 1997, the value of these produced minerals exceeded $735 million.
"Approximately 9.1 metric tons of nonfuel minerals are required every year for every person in the United States to maintain the current standard of living. Materials mined in Alabama such as bauxite, chalk, recovered sulfur, salt, and shale are used extensively in both construction and industry. Alabama exports a significant part of its industrial mineral production. Alabama ranks 17th nationally as a nonfuel minerals producer. The Geological Survey maps the distribution of these valuable resources and reports annual production and utilization figures."
|Plate XX. A. Cliff exposing interbedded, fine-grained, dolomitic marble and phyllite. Rocks of this type occur in a number of places in the west of the crystalline marble area, locally in contact with it and elsewhere separated by a considerable thickness of intervening dolomite. Although the deposits are of no commercial value, they have been in the past considerably prospected. (pp. 162-163)|
|Plate XX. B. An exposure of a portion of the 25-foot layer of variegated marble w2hich outcrops about 4 miles southeast of Calera, Shelby County, and which belongs to the Montevallo shale and sandstone formation. The ride bearing this marble crosses Buxahatchee Creek in SE of SE of S. 5, T. 24-N., R. 14-E. (pp. 162-163)|
|Plate XXIII. Entrance chamber in onyx-marble cave near Kymulga, Talladega County. The rock in which the cavern is formed in a dolomite. The onyx-marble deposits are calcite. (pp. 168-169)|
|Plate XXIV. A. Interbedded phyllite and dolomitic marble from belt to the northwest of the crystalline marble area. The thin beds of marble have been crumpled while the thicker ones have been fractured and faulted. NE S. 33, T. 21-S., R. 3-E. (pp. 170-171)|
|Plate XXV. A. One of the impurities of marble is silica. This mineral is frequently segregated into layers. Sometimes the deformation of the marble is evidenced by the bending of these layers of impurity which could not readily recrystallize. The photograph shows discarded marble block containing such evidence of folding. (pp. 172-173)|
Plate XXVI. A. Folding and reverse faulting in interbedded phyllite and marble from formation west of the crystalline marble belt. (pp. 174-175)
|Plate XXVI. B. The layers of impurities, which mark roughly the position of the bedding plane, are here seen irregularly distributed through the block of marble. This is attributed to drag-folding. (pp. 174-175)|
|Plate XXVII. A. In the crystalline marble deposits the marble beds are in many places interstratified with dolomite or contain lenses of dolomite, similar to the chief marble deposits of Vermont. dolomite is less readily recrystallized than calcite and when movements have taken place in the marble beds the dolomite is frequently broken and left in angular fragments or breccia, usually cement with calcite. A portion of a core which was taken from such a broken dolomite layer is here shown. The dark portion is dolomite and the lighter is calcite. (from Preliminary Report on The Crystalline and Other Marbles of Alabama, Bulletin 18,” by William F. Prouty, Geological Survey of Alabama, 1916, pp. 176-177)|
Mining sites, quarries and mining equipment remain on Ruffner Mountain from the many iron ore mines that dotted the landscape from the 1880s to the 1950s.
NOTE: You can obtain Alabama Geological Survey publications from the publications section of the web site.
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The following stone carvers’/company names are listed on this web site in addition to photographs of cemetery stones that they signed: Alexander HERD, Eutaw, Alabama; HERD & Bros., G. Herd; Thomas H. HOLT, Birmingham, Alabama; and B. J. HUGHES, Vienna, Alabama.
According to this book, Giuseppe Moretti quarried and promoted the use of Sylacauga marble for statuary and construction. Photographs of Giuseppe Moretti’s works and studio and home are included.
“Giuseppe Moretti (1857-1935), an Italian-born classical sculptor, made an extraordinary impact on the state of Alabama through his design and execution of Birmingham’s 56-foot iron statue of Vulcan and his promotion of Alabama marble as a medium for fine sculpture…..”
“…Moretti decided to find a way to buy land and establish his own quarry in Alabama. He hauled a sample block of the gleaming white stone back to his studio in Birmingham and carved The Head of Christ, a work that he carried with him to every place that he lived for the rest of his life…..”
Marble Quarry, 1935
“During the early twentieth century, Italian sculptor Giuseppe Moretti, whose first contribution to Alabama was the Vulcan statue in Birmingham, used Sylacauga marble for a number of his works. During the 1930s the marble industry fought the Great Depression and saw larger operations such as the Alabama Marble Company absorb smaller ones.”