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Fourth Part.

Section Fifth.

CHAPTER THIRD.

LESS COSTLY VENITIAN PAVEMENTS.

FIRST METHOD.

159. We offer the following less costly method of constructing pavements, to those who do not wish to incur the expense of those executed in Marble.

The floor of the apartment is first prepared with the first, second, and third coatings, as has been described. Then, instead of spreading upon the red coating, which is the third, the coating of white mortar; after having provided small round and flat pebbles, or any other kinds of broken stones that may be wished, they are spread at hazard over the whole surface of the red coating, taking care that they may be near enough each other.

They are then rolled with the stone cylinder in the same manner as the Marble pavements, until the stones are forced down into the red coating so as not to appear on the surface.

When, after a few hours, the work commence to dry, the lines are drawn, necessary to encircle the design which is to be given to the following coating:

This upper coating, which is laid on according to the design, is the same as that designated in the second chapter, under the name of the mortar of white Marble, and consists of Marble, pounded and reduced to sand and mixed with lime; but with the difference that this mass is not white like the first, but of the different colors which have been delineated on the design.

These colored mortars are composed like the white mortars, of green, yellow, red and other marbles, reduced to a kind of coarse sand, and afterwards mixed with lime. They are spread with the steel trowel over the different divisions of the design, according to the colors to be given them; this coating is then pounded with the iron rammer and leveled with the trowel. This coating of colored mortar should be from an inch to an inch and a half in thickness.

When the floor begins to dry, a coating of its respective color is spread over each division of the design, after which it is cleansed and polished with a woolen cushion. At the end of a few months, the floor is again covered with colored mortars, thinner than the first; these are spread and carefully smoothed, after which linseed oil is passed over it, and it is polished with bran.

SECOND METHOD.

160. In hotels, restaurants, warehouses, galleries, cellars, and all other places which a dry and solid floor without ornament is required, the fourth coating of colored of colored Marble is useless; it is sufficient to force down repeatedly the gravel or stone which has been used with the tone cylinder, afterwards consolidating and leveling it with the iron rammer.

THIRD METHOD.

161. Ordinary pavements can also be made by taking common stones and pounding and reducing them to coarse sand, which is then mixed with lime and old plaster stuff. When this mass is well mixed, and has acquired the consistency of a thick mortar, it is spared upon the third or red coating; this layer should be from an inch and a half to two inches in thickness. It is then smoothed and leveled with the cylinder, and pounded with the iron rammer. A stony mass is thus formed, which is solid and impenetrable, and is not impaired by time or temperature.

This pavement may be used in the open air, and upon frame-work as well as terraces, as it is perfectly impervious to water.

In this complicated work, everything depends upon the manner in which the described operations are executed. They have already been sufficiently tested, and, if the work does not succeed, it should be attributed to unskillfulness, and not to the defect of the process. We see daily, bitumen terraces, which are perfectly solid, and others which are imperfect; nevertheless, this rule is as old as civilization, and we owe to it the works which centuries have not been able to destroy. But to this rule, another should succeed, namely:-that work which is well done should be well paid for.



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