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Third Part.

SECTION EIGHTH.

UNIVERSAL CEMENT.

98. To compound this, a quantity of mastic should be dissolved in highly rectified spirits of wine, only enough of the spirits being used to effect the solution of the mastic.

Then soak an equal quantity of isinglass or fishglue until it is thoroughly softened. Dissolve this in a quantity of rum or brandy sufficient to form a strong glue, to which add half the weight of gum ammoniac finely pulverized.

Thus for thirty penny-weights of the mastic, thirty penny-weights of isinglass and fifteen of gum ammoniac will be necessary. The quantity of spirits and brandy depends upon their quality; the stronger the liquors, the less of them is needed, and the better will be the mixture.

Warm these two mixtures together over a slow fire, and when they are well mixed, place them in bottles, which must be hermetically sealed. This cement becomes perfectly dry in twelve to fifteen hours.

When the mastic is to be used, the bottle should be heated in a water bath to liquefy it; the fragments should also be heated before sizing them, and the surfaces well cleansed, as a matter of course.

Those who give this recipe, say that glass, crockery, etc., when thus restored, are as solid as before having been broken, and that the seams are hardly visible; but experience proves that these seams, although imperceptible at the time of the operation, soon soil for want of the perfect polish of the remainder of the article; this diminishes the advantages of the cementing.

 

COMPOSITION OF THE ATELIER OF THE MARBLE

WORKER.

99. The Atelier of the Marble worker is thus composed:

Of one or several benches, stronger and lower than those used by joiners. This is very necessary, as articles of great weight are worked on these tables. (See fig. 33)

Of several saws of different sizes. (fig. 59, 60, and 63.)

The last is held by one or more screw nuts, one being placed as in fig. 60, the other in the middle.-The braces of this saw are often modified; they are formed here of a collar and screw nut; sometimes the flat bar is bored and rigged with teeth entering into these holes, to shorten or extend the frame. This makes a strong draught, which lasts much longer than a rope, and is not susceptible to the changes of the atmosphere.

Of sebillas, or wooden bowls for holding the sand and water which should be thrown under the saw. (fig. 61.)

Of wooden or metal ladles with long handles, to take from the sebillas the sand and water necessary for the sawers of the Marble, who can thus work the saw with one hand, moistening it with the other. (fig. 56.)

Of handsaws without teeth, used in cutting stone or Marble with the aid of sand and water. A skilful workman often confines himself to making a deep groove in the Marble or stone, and then by a quick blow, separates the two pieces. (fig. 62.)

Of martelines, a kind of iron mallets pointed at one end, and diamond shaped at the other, which serve to pierce and shell off the Marble without splintering it. (fig. 34.)

Of marteline chisels, used for the same purposes, and worked with the aid of the sledge hammer or mallet. (figs. 2, 4, 19, 20, and 64.)

Of puncheons. (fig. 5)

Of a square etching needle. (fig. 1).

Of etching needles called houguettes, partly flattened, and sharp. (figs. 8, 9, 27 and 28.)

Of hooks for sinking and levelling cavities. (fig 10.)

Of round nosed chisels, used for the same purpose. (fig 11.)

Of sharp edged and notched scrapers for sinking flutings. (fig. 12.)

Of scrapers for the same purpose. (fig. 19.)

Of parting tools; a kind of flattened files, bent round and steeled at each end, to smooth those places most difficult to penetrate. (fig. 31.)

Of parting tools in round file, and half flattened in rasps, using the same object. (fig. 22.)

Of German files, flattened on one side, and partly rounded on the other. (fig. 16.)

Of round files. (fig. 14.)

Of rasps, partly rounded on one side, and flattened on the other. (fig. 13.)

Of rasps in round file. (fig. 23.)

Of gravers or burins. (fig. 27.)

Of clasps. (fig. 28.)

Of wimbles, upon which augurs are fixed for boring the marble. (fig. 36.)

Of mallets. (fig. 64.)

Of iron sledge hammers. (figs. 65 and 66.)

Of hinged compasses. (figs. 68 and 71.)

Of compasses of depth. (figs. 53 and 54.)

Of iron squares. (fig. 43.)

Of levels. (fig. 77.)

Of rules. (figs. 47, 48, and 49.)

Of shifting bevels, or hinged squares. (fig. 46.)

This nomenclature is not complete, but it contains all the essential tools.

We have not spoken of cushions, or chafing dishes, or of pots for melting mastic, because the form of these is immaterial.

The tools we have indicated are used by twos, threes, or sometimes by dozens, according to the nature of the work, and the number of workmen employed in the establishment. It is necessary to say, however, that the more are lost, or even broken, because the workmen take much better care of the tools when they are few, than when they can easily conceal all traces of their carelessness. Notwithstanding, one should have a great number of the sharp and edged tools, else much time will be lost in going to the forge or grindstone.

There is a simple method of avoiding the abuses of which we have just spoken, and one that is in use in some Marble yards; namely, that of giving the works by the piece, without furnishing the tools.



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