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Third Part.

SECTION SIXTH.

MACHINERY FOR SCULPTURING OR REDUCING.

88. Many artists have long been engaged in numerous experiments, with a view to the discovery of mechanical means of sculpturing, and of reducing or enlarging sculptured articles.

They have obtained successful results, at least for boasting, and for executing with facility certain works which, with the chisel, would have cost much time and pains.

M. Sauvage, of Paris, took out on the third of May, 1836, a patent of invention for a machine designed to reduce or enlarge statues, busts, alto and basso-relievos, with all the figures comprised in basso-relievos. This machine is composed of blades of iron, copper and wood, which are arranged and divided according to the principles of the pantograph.

The machine is mounted upon a movable shaft, which procures for it three circular movements directed by a common centre.

Upon the right blade is mounted a quadrantal hoop adapted to a band, of which the lower end is fixed up-on the extremity, bearing a tube which is intended to receive a metal or wooden rod, or a roller which is gently worked over the surfaces of the articles to be reduced.

The extremity also supports a tube which admits burins, etching needles, or drills, for working upon any material, whether Marble, stone, wood or metal.

This apparatus is fixed upon a hollow rest, in order to be able to ascend, descend, advance or retreat, according to the proportions of the work to be executed.

Two vertical shafts rigged with notched wheels are placed in an iron casing; the upper extremities of these shafts bear slabs intended to place the original, and to receive the material for the reproduction of the copy.

These shafts turn in the same direction by means of an intermediate wheel, or by double leather straps.

89. M. Dutel also proposed another machine in the same year, and has taken out several successive patents of invention and improvement.

"To demonstrate in the clearest and most precise manner, the plan of the machine of which I am the inventor," says he, "I have thought it best to give the designs separately, in respect to their different applications and uses.

These designs number four, representing four machines. The first is intended to reproduce, in any kind of material, sculptures in the kind called basso-relievo, and of dimensions equaling the model.

The second is designed to reproduce sculptures, as the first, of dimensions equaling the model, but of the kind called alto-relievo.

The third is suited to the reproduction of sculptures in the kind called basso-relievo, but of greater or lesser dimensions than the original model; that is, it reduces or enlarges it a third, one-half, or three-quarters.

The fourth is designed for and suited to the reproduction of sculptures in the kind called alto-relievo, such as statues, busts, etc., but, like the preceding, of greater or lesser dimensions than the original model; that is to say; it enlarges or reduces them one-third, one-half, or three quarters."

M. Dutel, after giving a detailed description of this machinery, concludes with the following important observations:

"It is proper to say that the fraises of either of these machines can be replaced by tools of the same shape and size, but not cut out like the fraises, and not tempered; so that they may be used with diamond dust, in case that hard stones are to be worked."

90. A third Parisian, M. Duperrey, also took out in 1846, a patent of invention for fifteen years for a machine for sculpturing, which he improved upon sufficiently to take out a second patent on the twenty-eighty of May, 1847, in which the following observations are found:

"The original description, submitted with the claim for the patent, demonstrated that, by the aid of this new machine, one could obtain at pleasure sculptures in basso or alto-relievos, or even in guilloches, similar to those produced by the carving lathe. This machine permits the sculpture of several pieces at the same time, either exactly copying the model or enlarging it; the proportions of course, being regulated in order to obtain the relative proportions of the different parts of the articles which are to be reproduced.

The original machinery worked very well, but it did not produce enough articles at one time, which increased the cost of the copying too much. Furthermore, I have perfected several details which permit me to modify the construction of the whole, with the view of causing the tools to work during the going in and out of the sliding puncheon.

In the first machine, all tools could only reproduce the same model, since they were all guided by a single key.

In the new machines the improvement is, that each tool can work upon one piece and reproduce a specific model, which can also be done by all the tools of the machine; still more, all the tools can work at the execution of the same piece, and all can be directed, by a single key, to work upon one model.

This new arrangement permits the manufacture, either of a greater number of pieces at the same time after different models, or of a piece of large size in a very short time; as all the tools which the machine possesses can assist in the execution of the piece."

We will briefly add that this machine is composed-

Firstly. Of two parallel slides, placed horizontally-one being designed to support the model to be copied, and the other, the material necessary for its reproduction.

Secondly. Of a support in which the keys and the tools move; this support is placed between the two slides, and the upper part is rigged with keys which receive all the movements of relief of the models placed above these keys, in order to communicate them to the tools which are mounted on the lower part of this support.

M. Duperrey concludes his exposition and the description of his machine by this observation: Flutings for the feet of tables can also be made in the same manner, by placing the molding tools into the tool casings; then, by making a line under the key, flutings can also be made of the desired form, and in a number determined by the dividing plate which serves for the guillochage.

These accounts are of a nature to interest amateur artists greatly, but they exceed the practical ideas of the Marble workers; for which reason, we shall not extend our remarks upon this subject, to which we must, however, direct their attention.



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